Extreme long shot
Shot from a great distance, it is generally used as a scene-setting, establishing shot. It normally shows an exterior, e.g. the outside of a building, or a landscape. There will be very little detail visible in the shot, as it is meant to give a general impression rather than specific information.
Very long shot
The subject is visible, but at a distance. The emphasis is on placing him/her in his/her environment.
The subject takes up the full frame from top to bottom, or at least as much as comfortably possible. It is referred to as a wide shot by some.
Medium (bust) shot
The subject is seen from the mid-section to slightly above the head. A medium shot is more intimate than a wide shot, but provides more breathing space for the actor than a close-up.
The subject is seen from just above the chest or the nape of his/her neck to just slightly above the top of her head. If you get in closer, so that the subject's head fills most of the frame, you have a tight close-up. Close-ups create a sense of intimacy and the feeling that you're involved in the scene
A close-up that focusses on a single feature—eyes, mouth, etc. Often used for dramatic or comic effects.